taken from Small Gland, Big Problem 4th Edition
by Professor Roger Kirby, Health Press 2011
Recent work has clarified the risk factors linked to an increased likelihood of developing complications of BPH. The larger the prostate (as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound), the greater the risk. Similarly, the risk is increased among those men with a PSA level above 1.4 ng/mL. In fact the higher the PSA (provided prostate cancer is not present), the greater the risk of retention. Also more likely to develop complications are men whose urine tends to flow slowly and those who have a relatively large amount of urine left in their bladder after attempting to urinate. Although not all men suffer progressive deterioration, in the majority of cases the symptoms gradually become worse over time and eventually complications develop.